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勞動(dòng)剩余條件下的供給不足與工資上漲——基于家庭分工的視角
丁守海
《中國社會(huì )科學(xué)》2011年第5期
2011-10-26
中文摘要:
  基于家庭經(jīng)濟學(xué)和時(shí)間配置理論可以證明,勞動(dòng)剩余條件下的勞動(dòng)供給并不是無(wú)限的。受制于家庭分工的約束,供給曲線(xiàn)呈特殊的階梯形態(tài):隨著(zhù)勞動(dòng)供給的增加,農業(yè)勞動(dòng)力的保留工資不斷提高,且幅度不斷擴大。勞動(dòng)供給對工資的反應是非連續的:只有當工資上升到新的保留工資水平時(shí),勞動(dòng)供給才會(huì )增加;否則,工資上漲并不能帶來(lái)供給增長(cháng)。與這種特殊的供給形態(tài)相對應,工資上漲的主要動(dòng)力從農業(yè)收入轉向工業(yè)勞動(dòng)需求。內蒙古、甘肅兩省1500個(gè)農戶(hù)的調查數據證明了這一判斷。當勞動(dòng)需求擴張時(shí),由于工資的微調不能帶動(dòng)供給的微調,勞動(dòng)力市場(chǎng)將長(cháng)期難以出清。這提醒我們,當前農民工工資上漲與用工短缺并存現象很可能源于勞動(dòng)剩余條件下的供給不足,并不必然意味著(zhù)剩余勞動(dòng)力枯竭,不能作為劉易斯拐點(diǎn)到來(lái)的證據。
英文摘要:
  On the basis of family economics and the theory of time allocation, it can be proved that labor supply under labor surplus conditions is not limitless. Subject to the constraint of intrahousehold labor division, the supply curve takes on a special staircase form: with the increase in labor supply, the reservation wage of rural labor rises constantly by an increasing margin. The response of labor supply to wage is not continuous: labor supply will increase only when the wage rises to the new level of reservation wage; otherwise wage increases will not lead to the increase in labor supply. Corresponding to this special supply condition, the demand for industrial labor instead of agricultural income becomes the major driving force for wage increases. Survey data on 1,500 rural households in Gansu and Inner Mongolia bear out the above proposition. When labor demand expands while the slight raise of wage cannot bring corresponding increase in labor supply, labormarket clearing will not be realized for a long period of time. This reminds us that the coexistence of wage increases and supply shortage of rural labor may very likely derive from insufficient labor supply under labor surplus conditions. It does not necessarily imply the exhaustion of labor surplus and cannot prove the arrival of the Lewisian turning point.